||The Dominions ran their own military affairs independent of the War Office in the United Kingdom and each had a General Staff. However, there were close links at the highest levels both military and governmental between the various Dominions and the United Kingdom. Domininion formations came under UK operational control when away from home but remained under dominion administrative control. This database shows the supreme HQ of the various dominions as being subordinate to the War Office as a way of showing that relationship and allowing users to generate Orders of Battle for the whole Commonwealth. In practise, the Dominions had almost complete autonomy in their military affairs.
||The Australian Imperial Force Battalions raised in 1939-1941 were associated for Battle Honour purposes with the corresponding Militia battalion. Therefore, this database associates them with the Corps of the appropriate Militia Battalion.
||Each Brigade of the 2 New Zealand Expeditionary Force was raised in succession between 1939 and 1942 and one Battalion (in most cases) in each Brigade was raised from the same specific area of New Zealand as its predecessors in the older Brigades and thus several NZEF battalions were associated with the same four or five New Zealand Territorial Force battalions from which they were raised. Therefore, this database has assigned each NZEF Battalion to a "Corps" which represents the component NZTF Regiments from which it was raised.
||In wartime, an officer was often appointed to a Role with a Temporary or Acting Rank. This database makes no distinction between Temporary or Acting Ranks and Substantive Ranks - this is because most sources make no distinction either!! That is why officers sometimes appear to drop a rank from one appointment to another. In some cases, an officer with a substantive rank of Colonel could be an Acting Lieutenant-General.
||During the Second World War, Brigadier was technically an appointment and not a rank even though it had it's own rank insignia. In British Army lists, all Brigadiers are technically Colonels. By contrast, Brigadier is listed as a rank in the Australiand and Canadian Army Lists. In the First World War, the term Brigadier-General was used.
||In 1941, a number of infantry battalions were used to form Regiments of the Royal Armoured Corps in the range 107-116 and 141-163. These Regiments are shown under their parent Corps not the Royal Armoured Corps (for historical interest). Their histories are usually listed in the Regimental Histories of their parent Corps.
||Holding Battalions are listed as Training Battalions under their parent Corps. They were always numbered 50 Battalion except in the case of Guards Regiments where they did not have a number.
||British Infantry Regiments were numbered until 1881 when all those Regiments which did not have a second Battalion were merged with the senior Regiment becoming 1 Battalion of the Regiment and the junior Regiment becoming 2 Battalion. Regiments were allocated to counties. In some cases there had been an association with the county since 1782, but that was not universal as the 1782 subtitles were not always valid in terms of recruiting areas. At the same time Militia Regiments joined the new County Regiments as 3 and or 4 Battalions of the Regiment. At the same time, Rifle Volunteer units became associated with the new Regiments and over the next 1-5 years were renamed as Volunteer Battalions of the Regiment. In 1908, most of the Volunteer Battalions were reorganised as part of the new Territorial Force and renumbered in sequence whereby the senior Volunteer Battalion was renumbered as 4 Battalion, the next senior as 5 Battalion and so on. In 1920, the Territorial Force was reformed as the Territorial Army.
||In light of the extremely complicated history of the Volunteer Battalions of Regiments in the London and Middlesex area, I have decided to change the way this database handles Rifle Volunteer Corps units formed in 1859-1860. Instead of merely alluding to their existence in the Notes of their descendent Volunteer Battalions, I have decided to list them as separate Rifle Battalions rather than as Infantry Battalions. The reason for this is that many of them were never formally renamed as Volunteer Battalions of their associated Corps and they remained in existence as Volunteer Rifle Corps until 1908. They were all ranked as Volunteer Battalions in 1881, but these rankings were transient and often did change several times. Many of these units were actually of Company size.
||I am not sure what the acceptable short form of the Volunteer Battalions' names were. Therefore I have used the form Battalion Number + Regiment Name + "Volunteers". This is an assumption. The full name (i.e. Battalion Number + "Volunteer Battalion" + Regiment Name) is correct.
||This database also covers the Regiments of Foot which in 1881 were given territorial titles in places of their numbers. These units are listed with the Unit Type of "Foot". This will allow users to trace the ancestry of the Regular Battalions of the British Army back through The Regiments of the Line. The Regimental Numbers show the precedence of each Regiment and were of great sentimental value with the Regiment and thus are often used in Regimental Histories of the First and Second World Wars. In fact, the 1881 mergers were greeted with horror in many regiments which were very upset at the loss of their ancient regimental numbers which in some cases dated back to 1751.
||The Corps Title used in Unit Page Titles is the title that was current in the Second World War. Some regiments, such as The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, received new titles between 1921 and 1939 and it is the post 1921 titles that are used. The actual corps title at the time of any events prior to 1921 are mentioned in the unit notes or in the event description. This style also applies to those Battalions which only existed prior to the name change (such as the Volunteer Battalions) in order to keep the corps title consistent within a regiment or corps. In most cases, the new "official" corps titles often reflected the corps titles which had been used "unofficially" prior to the name change.
||In 1939, the Canadian Army was divided into two branchs: the Permanent Active Militia and the Non-Permanent Active Militia. In 1939, a new force, the Canadian Active Service Force (CASF) was raised for service overseas. Those Militia and Regular units that were mobilised became part of the new Force. In 1941, the old terms were dropped and all mobilised units were designated Active and all non-mobilised units were designated as Reserve respectively. This database uses the terms Regular and Militia for the Permanent and Non-Permanent Active Militia. Units, such as Division HQs, which did not exist before the War are classed as War Formed. Units which were formed as part of the Reserve in 1940-41 are classed as Home Defence.
||Unlike its counterparts, every British and Dominion HQ was organised with three different staff branchs; General Staff (G), Adjutant-General's Branch (A) and Quartermaster-General's Branch (Q). The system was very confusing as staff officers had different titles at different levels of HQ. In some cases, A and Q functions were combined in a single role.
||Divisional Signal Regiments will henceforth be regarded as part of Divisional HQs and will not be tracked as separate units. The OC of the Divisional or Corps Signal Regiment will be identified by the Role of Commander Royal Signals. This brings Signal Regiments into line with Divisional CRA and Divisional CRE.
||Each Commonwealth Division had a fourth "Brigade HQ" in the form of the Divisional HQ CRA. This HQ commanded the Divisional RA assets, normally three Field Regiments, an Anti-Tank Regiment and a Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment; the equivalent of five battalions! The commander of this HQ known as CRA was a Brigadier and he was assisted by a Brigade Major and a Staff Captain.
||Rifle Volunteer Corps units were formed in the great Invasion Scare of 1859. These units are listed under the Rifle Unit Type and under the Force Type of Volunteer. They were not associated with the Infantry Regiments of the Line until 1881 when they were assigned to Line Regiments and ranked in seniority. Some were then redesignated as Volunteer Battalions of the Line Regiment, while others were redesignated sucessively as Rifle Volunteers and then Volunteer Rifle Corps until they were incorporated into The Territorial Force in 1908. Prior to 1881, they are grouped into pseudo-Corps, for example Middlesex Rifle Volunteers.
||Administrative Battalions were groupings of associated Rifle Volunteer Corps units formed in 1860 and afterwards. Some disappeared rapidly while others survived to be reorganised as Rifle Volunteer Battalions. They are listed separately as Administrative Battalions.
||Pre-1920 Canadian Regiments are listed as Rifle and not Infantry in the same manner as British Volunteer Corps
||The relationship of the Active (1 Battalion) and Reserve (2 Battalion) units of the wartime Canadian Regiments is quite confusing (to say the least).
When a Regiment was mobilised into the CASF or later the Canadian Army (Active), the initial personnel of the unit were from the previously existing NPAM or Canadian Army (Reserve) unit and most histories treat the mobilised Battalion as the same as the previously existing NPAM one.
This database has also (until now) taken the same approach and treated the 2nd (Reserve) Battalion as a new creation.
However, reading the Canadian Official Lineages makes the legal situation perfectly clear; it was the mobilised Battalion that was the newly created unit and not the Reserve Battalion!! The Reserve Battalion was later (after early 1940) redesignated 2 (Reserve) Battalion while the Active Battalion was designated 1 Battalion; but 2 Battalion was the peacetime unit while 1 Battalion was a "war-formed" unit. When the various Active Battalions were disbanded, the old Reserve Battalion remaind in existence and ceased to be designated as 2 Battalion.
However, the 2nd Battalion was not always organised immediately upon the embodiment of the Active Battalion (this is especially the case with Battalions of the 1st and 2nd Canadian Infantry Divisions mobilised in 1939. In these cases, the 2nd Battalions were not formed in May-June 1940!
The role of the missing 2nd Battalions was initially played by Regimental Depots. However these Depots were absorbed into District Depots in 1940 and did not convert to the 2nd Battalions.
Therefore this Database has created Battalions of type "Reserve" to represent the legal continuity between the pre-War NPAM Battalions and the 2nd (Reserve) Infantry Battalions of 1940 onwards.
Please note that 2nd (Reserve) Battalions are categorised as "Infantry" while the interim Battalions mentioned above are categorised as "Reserve".
I hope this is clear :)
||The Reserve Battalions of the Canadian Army that were created in 1920 and disbanded in 1936 are designated as Reserve.